Documents By Type:
Official reports
Overviews and comparisons
Active Shooter Incidents in the United States in 2014 and 2015 [11 pp, 218 Kb]

This is an addendum to the FBI’s study of active shooter incidents from 2000 to 2013. 

Active Shooter: Recommendations and Analysis for Risk Mitigation [182 pp, 2.86 Mb]

This report was produced by the New York City Police Department. Besides the recommendations, the document contains a long listing of active shooter incidents, dividing them into several categories based on the location of the attacks: office buildings, open commercial, factories and warehouses, schools, and other.

Balancing Student Privacy and School Safety: A Guide to the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act for Colleges and Universities [2 pp, 273 Kb]

Understanding the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) is essential for threat assessment. This document addresses issues relating to FERPA in colleges and universities.

Balancing Student Privacy and School Safety: A Guide to the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act for Elementary and Secondary Schools [2 pp, 306 Kb]

Understanding the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) is essential for threat assessment. This document presents key points relating to primary and secondary educational settings. 

Campus Attacks: Targeted Violence Affecting Institutions of Higher Education [40 pp, 681 Kb]

This report was published in 2010 as a joint effort from the Secret Service, Department of Education, and FBI.

Campus Safety at Oregon Post-Secondary Education Institutions [39 pp, 769 Kb]

This report was compiled in the wake of the Umpqua Community College attack.

Campus Threat Assessment Case Studies [92 pp, 3.5 Mb]

This report was produced by the Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) of the U.S. Department of Justice. It contains eight case studies as a guide to conducting campus threat assessments. 

Colorado School Safety Guide [150 pp, 1.21 Mb]

This was published by Colorado’s Attorney General in 2018. 

Colorado School Safety Resource Center: Essentials of Threat Assessment [27 pp, 569 Kb]

This document was originally created by the Colorado School Safety Resource Center in 2009, but has been updated as of 2018.

A Comparison of Averted and Completed School Attacks from the Police Foundation Averted School Violence Database [42 pp, 7.74 Mb]

This report, written by Peter Langman and Frank Straub, presents findings on 51 incidents of school violence that have occurred since the attack at Columbine High School and compares the findings to 51 incidents of averted school violence. Recommendations and lessons learned regarding school safety are also included.

Enhancing School Safety Using a Threat Assessment Model [32 pp, 1.42 Mb]

This was published by the U.S. Secret Service in 2018.

The Final Report and Findings of the Safe School Initiative [63 pp, 569 Kb]

This document from 2002 is the result of collaboration between the Secret Service and the U.S. Department of Education.

Firearm Violence, 1993–2011 [28 pp, 1.39 Mb]

This report from the U.S. Department of Justice is not about violence prevention, but it is included here because it presents statistics on firearm violence. Despite the common perception that gun violence is an ever-increasing phenomenon, the report notes that firearm-related homicides decreased 39% from 1993 to 2011. In addition, it states that school-related homicides of youth between the ages of 5 and 18 decreased from an average of 29 per year in the 1990s to an average of 20 in the first decade of this century (a decline of 31%).

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2013 [208 pp, 4.6 Mb]

This is a report from the U.S. Department of Education that presents data on multiple facets of school safety.

Making Prevention a Reality: Identifying, Assessing, and Managing the Threat of Targeted Attacks [130 pp, 2.81 Mb]

This report was created by the FBI through their Behavioral Analysis Unit—National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime.

Making Schools Safer: A Quick Reference Guide [2 pp, 402 Kb]

This was published by the U.S. Secret Service in 2018.

Mass Attacks in Public Spaces - 2017 [7 pp, 1.1 Mb]

This report by the U.S. Secret Service contains data on mass attacks, including but not limited to, school shootings.

Mass Attacks in Public Spaces 2019 [36 pp, 3.29 Mb]

This report was prepared by the National Threat Assessment Center of the United States Secret Service.

Mass Attacks in Public Spaces — 2017 [7 pp, 1.1 Mb]

This report from the National Threat Assessment Center of the Secret Service was released in 2018. 

Mass Victimization: Promising Avenues for Prevention [58 pp, 624 Kb]

This report was published by the FBI in 2015. 

Pennsylvania State Police School Safety Report [28 pp, 1.2 Mb]

This report focuses on physical security and crisis response.

The Police Response to Active Shooter Incidents [60 pp, 7.44 Mb]

This report was released in 2014 by the Police Executive Research Forum.

A Preliminary Report on the Police Foundation’s Averted School Violence Database [40 pp, 7.5 Mb]

This report, written by Jeffrey A. Daniels, presents the findings from the Averted School Violence database created by Police Foundation. The findings are drawn from 51 incidents of averted school violence since the attack at Columbine High School (20 April 1999). Recommendations and lessons learned regarding school safety are also included.

Prior Knowledge of Potential School-Based Violence [15 pp, 1.4 Mb]

This is a collaboration between the Secret Service and the U.S. Department of Education. The focus of this 2008 study was investigating students with prior knowledge of impending school attacks.

Protecting America’s Schools: A U.S. Secret Service Analysis of Targeted School Violence [70 pp, 8.95 Mb]

This report was created by the National Threat Assessment Center of the United States Secret Service. It presents data on school attacks from 2008 through 2017, along with recommendations on threat assessment as a violence prevention strategy. 

Recommendations for Reporting on Mass Shootings [2 pp, 459 Kb]

This document contains media guidelines for how to appropriately report on mass shootings so as to minimize the likelihood of copycat attacks, to respect the victims and their families, and to address other relevant issues. This project was led by SAVE (Suicide Awareness Voices of Education) and included national and international experts from the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention (AFSP), the CDC; Columbia University; International Association for Suicide Prevention (IASP) Media Task Force; JED; NAMI­-NH; SPRC; and multiple media industry experts. It is posted here with permission from

Recommended Practices for Virginia College Threat Assessment [92 pp, 2.31 Mb]

This document was written by Dewey Cornell, Ph.D., one of the leading experts on school safety and director of the Virginia Youth Violence Project. See also the book Guidelines for Responding to Student Threats of Violence, by Dewey Cornell and Peter Sheras. 

Safeguarding Our Children: An Action Guide [68 pp, 535 Kb]

This publication was the result of collaboration among numerous national and governmental organizations. It was published by the U.S. Departments of Education and Justice, American Institutes for Research.

School Safety and Security (Massachusetts) [36 pp, 1.2 Mb]

This is the Massachusetts Task Force Report on School Safety and Security.

School Safety: Lessons Learned [60 pp, 3.63 Mb]

This document was created by the United States Attorney’s Office, District of Minnesota, along with the Minnesota Department of Education and the Minnesota Department of Public Safety. It covers multiple aspects of school safety, including preventing school shootings, improving school climate, addressing bullying, increasing community engagement, and many other issues.  

School Security and Standards Task Force (Illinois) [283 pp, 4.45 Mb]

This is a report to the Illinois State Board of Education in 2016.

The School Shooter: A Threat Assessment Perspective [52 pp, 193 Kb]

This is the FBI report on school shootings (primary author, Dr. Mary Ellen O'Toole).

Strategic Approaches to Preventing Multiple Casualty Violence [51 pp, 4.64 Mb]

This report by the United States Department of Justice was released in 2013.

A Study of Active Shooter Incidents in the United States Between 2000 and 2013 [47 pp, 2 Mb]

This analysis was published by the FBI.

A Study of the Pre-Attack Behaviors of Active Shooters in the United States Between 2000 and 2013 [30 pp, 3.03 Mb]

This is the FBI’s follow-up report to its previous analysis of active shooter incidents between 2000 and 2013.

Threat Assessment in Schools [99 pp, 774 Kb]

This document from 2002 is the result of collaboration between the Secret Service and the U.S. Department of Education.

Threat Assessment in the Campus Setting [28 pp, 615 Kb]

This white paper was created by the National Behavioral Intervention Team Association (NaBITA) in 2014. It is included here with permission. 

Workplace Violence: Issues in Response [80 pp, 6.4 Mb]

This is a report by the FBI. Though it is not focused on school shootings, it provides important guidelines on do’s and don’t’s for implementing threat assessment programs that are also relevant to educational environments. Though school shootings most commonly are committed by current or recent students, several perpetrators have been university employees (e.g., Edward Allaway, Valery Fabrikant, and Amy Bishop). Finally, for anyone working in a school setting, school shootings constitute a form of workplace violence.

Pekka-Eric Auvinen · Jokela High School
Jokela School Shooting Official Report [148 pp, 1.5 Mb]

This document is the official report of the investigation commission of the Finnish Ministry of Justice.

Seung Hui Cho · Virginia Tech
Mass Shootings at Virginia Tech: Report of the Review Panel [260 pp, 17 Mb]

This is the official findings of the review panel from August 2007.

Virginia Tech: Addendum to the Official Report [210 pp, 4 Mb]

This report, released in November 2009, is a revised version of the original report.

Nikolas Cruz · Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School
Recovering and Moving Forward: Lessons Learned and Recommendations Following the Shooting at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School [99 pp, 1.65 Mb]

This report was produced by Police Foundation and released in August, 2019.

Regional Public Safety Communications in Broward County [59 pp, 1.92 Mb]

The subtitle of this document is “A National Police Foundation Interim Review of the Impact of Communication Systems and Processes on the Response to the February 14, 2018 Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School Shooting.”

Nicholas Elliott · Atlantic Shores Christian School
Subcommittee Hearing: Crime and Criminal Justice, House of Representatives, 1993 [120 pp, 6.6 Mb]

This document contains an account of Nicholas Elliott’s purchase of a firearm and his actions during his attack. He is first mentioned on p. 56.

Valery Fabrikant · Concordia University
Arthurs Report on Fabrikant [84 pp, 1.7 Mb]

Fabrikant had a long history of conflict with the university and this report investigates his complaints.

Cowan Report on Fabrikant [44 pp, 913 Kb]

This report documents the history of Fabrikant's years at Concordia from 1979 to 1992, highlighting his erratic behavior and warning signs of impending violence.

Thomas Hamilton · Dunblane Primary School
Dunblane Official Report [180 pp, 3.6 Mb]

This report is the summary of the public inquiry conducted in the wake of the attack by Thomas Hamilton. The transcript of the court proceedings is also available on this site. The official report provides details on the life of Thomas Hamilton, as well as discussing issues related to firearm access, school security, and other topics. A published, bound copy of the report is available from Scotland, and a version is also available online as an html document. We created this pdf version from the html version and matched the pagination to that of the published report. Thus, any quotation cited from the published report can be located on the same page in this document. 

Transcript of the Public Inquiry [3376 pp, 5.5 Mb]

This document is the transcript of the public inquiry that was held following Thomas Hamilton's attack. Note: the pagination in this document is not reliable.

Eric Harris / Dylan Klebold · Columbine High School
JCSO Official Columbine Report [513 pp, 32 Mb]

This is the final report from the Jefferson County Sheriff's Office regarding the attack at Columbine High School. (Note: The report was published as a website. This is a PDF version of the entire site. As of October 2014, the original site no longer seems to be accessible. We have added bookmarks to this document; we recommend downloading it and using the bookmarks pane in your PDF viewer to navigate. Most of the audio and video links are still functional; clicking on a link will download the audio or video media to your computer.)

The Report of Governor Bill Owens’ Columbine Review Commission [188 pp, 938 Kb]

This is the official report from May 2001 on the attack at Columbine.

Report of the Investigation into the 1997 Directed Report and Related Matters Concerning the Columbine High School Shootings in April 1999 [55 pp, 1.21 Mb]

This report reviews all the known law enforcement contacts relating to Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold prior to their attack. Most of these involved Harris and occurred in 1997 and 1998.

Wanton Violence at Columbine High School [72 pp, 2.27 Mb]

As stated in this document, “This report is an analysis of the fire service and emergency medical service (EMS) operations and the overall response to the assault on Columbine High School at Littleton, Colorado, on April 20, 1999. Incident command, special operations, and mass casualty emergency medical services are featured.” The report was produced by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security.

Steven Kazmierczak · Northern Illinois University
Northern Illinois University Official Report [322 pp, 13.6 Mb]

This is the official report on Steven Kazmierczak, the attack, and the university's response.

Sunghee Kwon · University of South Carolina: 2015
USC Institutional Review [4 pp, 211 Kb]

This brief review was done in the wake of Sunghee Kwon’s attack in 2015 to evaluate the university’s response and recommend improvements.

Adam Lanza · Sandy Hook Elementary School
Appendix to Sandy Hook Official Report [236 pp, 25.31 Mb]

In the initial aftermath of the attack at Sandy Hook, it was reported that Adam Lanza had deleted his computer files. Among other details of the investigation, this document provides information regarding Lanza’s electronic files that investigators were able to recover. In addition, there is a summary of “The Big Book of Granny,” a piece of writing created by Lanza and a peer. The story includes a character who states, “I like hurting people … especially children.” Also, in one “episode,” Granny’s son shoots her in the head; in other words, a son shoots his own mother in the head. This is what Lanza ended up doing in real life.

The Final Report of the Sandy Hook Advisory Commission [277 pp, 2 Mb]

This report presents recommendations on school safety in three domains: Safe School Design and Operation; Law Enforcement, Public Safety, and Emergency Response; and Mental Health/Mental Wellness.

Sandy Hook Official Report [48 pp, 608 Kb]

This is the official report by the State’s Attorney, Stephen J. Sedensky, III, documenting the investigation of the attack by Adam Lanza.

Shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School: Report of the Office of the Child Advocate [114 pp, 895 Kb]

This report was released on November 21, 2014. It reviews Lanza’s contacts with medical and mental health professionals and the missed opportunities for intervention.

Jared Loughner · Safeway Supermarket
Using a Systems Approach for Threat Assessment Investigations: A Case Study on Jared Lee Loughner [21 pp, 908 Kb]

This report was published by the Secret Service.

Jared Padgett · Reynolds High School
Patrick Purdy · Cleveland Elementary School [Purdy]
Patrick Purdy Official Report [99 pp, 3.2 Mb]

This document is actually several documents on the case, including a chronology of Patrick Purdy's life, his contacts with the mental health system and the legal system, a psychological analysis, his preparation for the attack and details of the attack itself, and his autopsy. This is the best source of information on Purdy that I have found.

Elliot Rodger · University of California at Santa Barbara
Isla Vista Mass Murder May 23, 2014: Investigative Summary [68 pp, 1.27 Mb]

This is the official report of the Santa Barbara County Sheriff’s Office on the rampage by Elliot Rodger. Though Rodger’s autobiography referred to “concentration camps,” it contained no references to Hitler or the Nazis. This official report documents Rodger’s many online searches related to Hitler, Nazis, Heinrich Himmler, and Joseph Goebbels. It also presents information on Rodger’s childhood, adolescence, education, and mental health treatment.

Matti Saari · Seinajoki University
Kauhajoki School Shooting Official Report [194 pp, 2.2 Mb]

This is the official report on Matti Saari's attack by the Finnish Ministry of Justice.

Charles Whitman · University of Texas
Charles Whitman Official Report [21 pp, 718 Kb]

On 8 September 1966, this official report was made public.

James Wilson · Oakland Elementary School
John Zawahri · Santa Monica College