Documents By Type:
Official reports > General research
Overviews and comparisons
Active Shooter Incidents in the United States in 2014 and 2015 [11 pp, 218 Kb]

This is an addendum to the FBI’s study of active shooter incidents from 2000 to 2013. 

Active Shooter: Recommendations and Analysis for Risk Mitigation [182 pp, 2.86 Mb]

This report was produced by the New York City Police Department. Besides the recommendations, the document contains a long listing of active shooter incidents, dividing them into several categories based on the location of the attacks: office buildings, open commercial, factories and warehouses, schools, and other.

Balancing Student Privacy and School Safety: A Guide to the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act for Colleges and Universities [2 pp, 273 Kb]

Understanding the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) is essential for threat assessment. This document addresses issues relating to FERPA in colleges and universities.

Balancing Student Privacy and School Safety: A Guide to the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act for Elementary and Secondary Schools [2 pp, 306 Kb]

Understanding the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) is essential for threat assessment. This document presents key points relating to primary and secondary educational settings. 

Campus Attacks: Targeted Violence Affecting Institutions of Higher Education [40 pp, 681 Kb]

This report was published in 2010 as a joint effort from the Secret Service, Department of Education, and FBI.

Campus Safety at Oregon Post-Secondary Education Institutions [39 pp, 769 Kb]

This report was compiled in the wake of the Umpqua Community College attack.

Campus Threat Assessment Case Studies [92 pp, 3.5 Mb]

This report was produced by the Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) of the U.S. Department of Justice. It contains eight case studies as a guide to conducting campus threat assessments. 

The Final Report and Findings of the Safe School Initiative [63 pp, 569 Kb]

This document from 2002 is the result of collaboration between the Secret Service and the U.S. Department of Education.

Firearm Violence, 1993-2011 [28 pp, 1.39 Mb]

This report from the U.S. Department of Justice is not about violence prevention, but it is included here because it presents statistics on firearm violence. Despite the common perception that gun violence is an ever-increasing phenomenon, the report notes that firearm-related homicides decreased 39% from 1993 to 2011. In addition, it states that school-related homicides of youth between the ages of 5 and 18 decreased from an average of 29 per year in the 1990s to an average of 20 in the first decade of this century (a decline of 31%). 

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2013 [208 pp, 4.6 Mb]

This is a report from the U.S. Department of Education that presents data on multiple facets of school safety.

Making Prevention a Reality: Identifying, Assessing, and Managing the Threat of Targeted Attacks [130 pp, 2.81 Mb]

This report was created by the FBI through their Behavioral Analysis Unit—National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime.

Pennsylvania State Police School Safety Report [28 pp, 1.2 Mb]

This report focuses on physical security and crisis response.

The Police Response to Active Shooter Incidents [60 pp, 7.44 Mb]

This report was released in 2014 by the Police Executive Research Forum.

Prior Knowledge of Potential School-Based Violence [15 pp, 1.4 Mb]

This is a collaboration between the Secret Service and the U.S. Department of Education. The focus of this 2008 study was investigating students with prior knowledge of impending school attacks.

Recommendations for Reporting on Mass Shootings [2 pp, 459 Kb]

This document contains media guidelines for how to appropriately report on mass shootings so as to minimize the likelihood of copycat attacks, to respect the victims and their families, and to address other relevant issues. This project was led by SAVE (Suicide Awareness Voices of Education) and included national and international experts from the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention (AFSP), the CDC; Columbia University; International Association for Suicide Prevention (IASP) Media Task Force; JED; NAMI­-NH; SPRC; and multiple media industry experts. It is posted here with permission from SAVE.org.

Recommended Practices for Virginia College Threat Assessment [92 pp, 2.31 Mb]

This document was written by Dewey Cornell, Ph.D., one of the leading experts on school safety and director of the Virginia Youth Violence Project. See also the book Guidelines for Responding to Student Threats of Violence, by Dewey Cornell and Peter Sheras. 

School Safety and Security (Massachusetts) [36 pp, 1.2 Mb]

This is the Massachusetts Task Force Report on School Safety and Security.

The School Shooter: A Threat Assessment Perspective [52 pp, 193 Kb]

This is the FBI report on school shootings (primary author, Dr. Mary Ellen O'Toole).

Strategic Approaches to Preventing Multiple Casualty Violence [51 pp, 4.64 Mb]

This report by the United States Department of Justice was released in 2013.

A Study of Active Shooter Incidents in the United States Between 2000 and 2013 [47 pp, 2 Mb]

This analysis was published by the FBI.

Threat Assessment in Schools [99 pp, 774 Kb]

This document from 2002 is the result of collaboration between the Secret Service and the U.S. Department of Education.

Threat Assessment in the Campus Setting [28 pp, 615 Kb]

This white paper was created by the National Behavioral Intervention Team Association (NaBITA) in 2014. It is included here with permission. 

Workplace Violence: Issues in Response [80 pp, 6.4 Mb]

This is a report by the FBI. Though it is not focused on school shootings, it provides important guidelines on do’s and don’t’s for implementing threat assessment programs that are also relevant to educational environments. Though school shootings most commonly are committed by current or recent students, several perpetrators have been university employees (e.g., Edward Allaway, Valery Fabrikant, and Amy Bishop). Finally, for anyone working in a school setting, school shootings constitute a form of workplace violence.

Nicholas Elliott · Atlantic Shores Christian School
Subcommittee Hearing: Crime and Criminal Justice, House of Representatives, 1993 [120 pp, 6.6 Mb]

This document contains an account of Nicholas Elliott’s purchase of a firearm and his actions during his attack. He is first mentioned on p. 56.

James Wilson · Oakland Elementary School